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The World Data Centre for Geomagnetism, Mumbai is the part of the Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, an autonomous research institute under the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India. This Centre is a part of ICSU World Data Centre System operated since 1971. This Centre has collected a comprehensive set of analog and digital geomagnetic data as well as indices of geomagnetic activity supplied from a worldwide network of magnetic observatories.
The WDC Geomagnetism, Edinburgh has a comprehensive set of digital geomagnetic data as well as indices of geomagnetic activity supplied from a worldwide network of magnetic observatories. The data and services at the WDC are available for scientific use without restrictions.
The task of WDC geomagnetism is to collect geomagnetic data from all over the globe and distribute those data to researchers and data users, as a World Data Center for Geomagnetism.
The WDC has a FTP-server to distribute the PCN index derived from the geomagnetic observatory Qaanaaq (THL) and the Kp-index data products derived at the geomagnetic observatory Niemegk (NGK). The WDC is also holding extensive archives of magnetograms and other geomagnetic observatory data products that predate the introduction of digital data recording. The material is in analogue form such as film or microfiche. The Polar Cap index (abbreviation PC index) consists of the Polar Cap North (PCN) and the Polar Cap South (PCS) index, which are derived from magnetic measurements taken at the geomagnetic observatories Qaanaaq (THL, Greenland, +85o magnetic latitude) and Vostok (VOS, Antarctica, -83o magnetic latitude), respectively. The idea behind these indices is to estimate the intensity of anti-sunward plasma convection in the polar caps. This convection is associated with electric Hall currents and consequent magnetic field variations perpendicular to the antisunward plasma flow (and related Hall current) which can be monitored at the Qaanaaq and Vostok magnetic observatories. PC aims at monitoring the energy input from solar wind to the magnetosphere (loading activity). The index is constructed in such a way that it has a linear relationship with the merging Electric Field at the magnetopause; consequently PC is given in units of mV/m as for the electric field. In August 2013, the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA) endorsed the PC index. The endorsed PC index is accessible at or through WDC Copenhagen.
The International Service of Geomagnetic Indices (ISGI) is in charge of the elaboration and dissemination of geomagnetic indices, and of tables of remarkable magnetic events, based on the report of magnetic observatories distributed all over the planet, with the help of ISGI Collaborating Institutes. The interaction between the solar wind, including plasma and interplanetary magnetic field, and the Earth's magnetosphere results in a transfer of energy and particles inside the magnetosphere. Solar wind characteristics are highly variable, and they have actually a direct influence on the shape and size of the magnetosphere, on the amount of transferred energy, and on the way this energy is dissipated. It is clear that the great diversity of sources of magnetic variations give rise to a great complexity in ground magnetic signatures. Geomagnetic indices aim at describing the geomagnetic activity or some of its components. Each geomagnetic index is related to different phenomena occurring in the magnetosphere, ionosphere and deep in the Earth in its own unique way. The location of a measurement, the timing of the measurement and the way the index is calculated all affect the type of phenomenon the index relates to. The IAGA endorsed geomagnetic indices and lists of remarkable geomagnetic events constitute unique temporal and spatial coverage data series homogeneous since middle of 19th century.
ISDC's online service portal is an access point for all manner of geoscientific geodata, its corresponding metadata, scientific documentation and software tools. The majority of the data and information, the portal currently offers to the public, are global geomonitoring products such as satellite orbit and Earth gravity field data as well as geomagnetic and atmospheric data for the exploration. These products for Earths changing system are provided via state-of-the art retrieval techniques. The projects hosted are: CHAMP, GGP, GRACE, GNSS, GGSP, GGOS, GPS-PDR, ICGEM, TerraSAR-x (TSX-TOR) and TanDEM-X.
Welcome to INTERMAGNET - the global network of observatories, monitoring the Earth's magnetic field. At this site you can find data and information from geomagnetic observatories around the world. The INTERMAGNET programme exists to establish a global network of cooperating digital magnetic observatories, adopting modern standard specifications for measuring and recording equipment, in order to facilitate data exchanges and the production of geomagnetic products in close to real time.
The Inter-regional Geomagnetic Data Center of the Russian-Ukrainian INTERMAGNET segment is operated by the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences (GC RAS). Geomagnetic data are transmitted from observatories and stations located in Russia and Ukraine. The particular feature of the Center is the automated system for real-time recognition of artificial (anthropogenic) disturbances in incoming data. Being based on fuzzy logic approach, this quality control system facilitates the preparation of the definitive magnetograms from preliminary records carried out by data experts manually. The collected geomagnetic data are stored using relational database management system. The geomagnetic database is intended for storing both 1-minute and 1-second data. The results of anthropogenic disturbance recognition are also stored in the database.
NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) are responsible for hosting and providing public access to one of the most significant archives for environmental data on Earth with over 20 petabytes of comprehensive atmospheric, coastal, oceanic, and geophysical data. NCEI headquarters are located in Asheville, North Carolina. Most employees work in the four main locations, but apart from those locations, NCEI has employees strategically located throughout the United States. The main locations are Cooperative Institute for Climate and Satellites–North Carolina (CICS-NC) at Asheville, North Carolina, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES) at Boulder Colorado, Cooperative Institute for Climate and Satellites–Maryland (CICS-MD) at Silver Spring Maryland and Stennis Space Center, Mississippi.
The THEMIS mission is a five-satellite Explorer mission whose primary objective is to understand the onset and macroscale evolution of magnetospheric substorms. The five small satellites were launched together on a Delta II rocket and they carry identical sets of instruments including an electric field instrument (EFI), a flux gate magnetometer (FGM), a search coil magnetometer (SCM), a electro-static analyzer, and solid state telescopes (SST). The mission consists of several phases. In the first phase, the spacecraft will all orbit as a tight cluster in the same orbital plane with apogee at 15.4 Earth radii (RE). In the second phase, also called the Dawn Phase, the satellites will be placed in their orbits and during this time their apogees will be on the dawn side of the magnetosphere. During the third phase (also known as the Tail Science Phase) the apogees will be in the magnetotail. The fourth phase is called the Dusk Phase or Radiation Belt Science Phase, with all apogees on the dusk side. In the fifth and final phase, the apogees will shift to the sunward side (Dayside Science Phase). The satellite data will be combined with observations of the aurora from a network of 20 ground observatories across the North American continent. The THEMIS-B (THEMIS-P1) and THEMIS-C (THEMIS-P2) were repurposed to study the lunar environment in 2009. The spacecraft were renamed ARTEMIS (Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence and Electrodynamics of the Moon’s Interaction with the Sun), with the P1 and P2 designations maintained.