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dbEST is a division of GenBank that contains sequence data and other information on "single-pass" cDNA sequences, or "Expressed Sequence Tags", from a number of organisms. Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) are short (usually about 300-500 bp), single-pass sequence reads from mRNA (cDNA). Typically they are produced in large batches. They represent a snapshot of genes expressed in a given tissue and/or at a given developmental stage. They are tags (some coding, others not) of expression for a given cDNA library. Most EST projects develop large numbers of sequences. These are commonly submitted to GenBank and dbEST as batches of dozens to thousands of entries, with a great deal of redundancy in the citation, submitter and library information. To improve the efficiency of the submission process for this type of data, we have designed a special streamlined submission process and data format. dbEST also includes sequences that are longer than the traditional ESTs, or are produced as single sequences or in small batches. Among these sequences are products of differential display experiments and RACE experiments. The thing that these sequences have in common with traditional ESTs, regardless of length, quality, or quantity, is that there is little information that can be annotated in the record. If a sequence is later characterized and annotated with biological features such as a coding region, 5'UTR, or 3'UTR, it should be submitted through the regular GenBank submissions procedure (via BankIt or Sequin), even if part of the sequence is already in dbEST. dbEST is reserved for single-pass reads. Assembled sequences should not be submitted to dbEST. GenBank will accept assembled EST submissions for the forthcoming TSA (Transcriptome Shotgun Assembly) division. The individual reads which make up the assembly should be submitted to dbEST, the Trace archive or the Short Read Archive (SRA) prior to the submission of the assemblies.
The Expression Atlas provides information on gene expression patterns under different biological conditions such as a gene knock out, a plant treated with a compound, or in a particular organism part or cell. It includes both microarray and RNA-seq data. The data is re-analysed in-house to detect interesting expression patterns under the conditions of the original experiment. There are two components to the Expression Atlas, the Baseline Atlas and the Differential Atlas. The Baseline Atlas displays information about which gene products are present (and at what abundance) in "normal" conditions (e.g. tissue, cell type). It aims to answer questions such as "which genes are specifically expressed in human kidney?". This component of the Expression Atlas consists of highly-curated and quality-checked RNA-seq experiments from ArrayExpress. It has data for many different animal and plant species. New experiments are added as they become available. The Differential Atlas allows users to identify genes that are up- or down-regulated in a wide variety of different experimental conditions such as yeast mutants, cadmium treated plants, cystic fibrosis or the effect on gene expression of mind-body practice. Both microarray and RNA-seq experiments are included in the Differential Atlas. Experiments are selected from ArrayExpress and groups of samples are manually identified for comparison e.g. those with wild type genotype compared to those with a gene knock out. Each experiment is processed through our in-house differential expression statistical analysis pipeline to identify genes with a high probability of differential expression.
The Entrez Protein Clusters database contains annotation information, publications, structures and analysis tools for related protein sequences encoded by complete genomes. The data available in the Protein Clusters Database is generated from prokaryotic genomic studies and is intended to assist researchers studying micro-organism evolution as well as other biological sciences. Available genomes include plants and viruses as well as organelles and microbial genomes.
AceView provides a curated, comprehensive and non-redundant sequence representation of all public mRNA sequences (mRNAs from GenBank or RefSeq, and single pass cDNA sequences from dbEST and Trace). These experimental cDNA sequences are first co-aligned on the genome then clustered into a minimal number of alternative transcript variants and grouped into genes. Using exhaustively and with high quality standards the available cDNA sequences evidences the beauty and complexity of mammals’ transcriptome, and the relative simplicity of the nematode and plant transcriptomes. Genes are classified according to their inferred coding potential; many presumably non-coding genes are discovered. Genes are named by Entrez Gene names when available, else by AceView gene names, stable from release to release. Alternative features (promoters, introns and exons, polyadenylation signals) and coding potential, including motifs, domains, and homologies are annotated in depth; tissues where expression has been observed are listed in order of representation; diseases, phenotypes, pathways, functions, localization or interactions are annotated by mining selected sources, in particular PubMed, GAD and Entrez Gene, and also by performing manual annotation, especially in the worm. In this way, both the anatomy and physiology of the experimentally cDNA supported human, mouse and nematode genes are thoroughly annotated.
ArrayExpress is one of the major international repositories for high-throughput functional genomics data from both microarray and high-throughput sequencing studies, many of which are supported by peer-reviewed publications. Data sets are either submitted directly to ArrayExpress and curated by a team of specialist biological curators, or are imported systematically from the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus database on a weekly basis. Data is collected to MIAME and MINSEQE standards.
The Genome database contains annotations and analysis of eukaryotic and prokaryotic genomes, as well as tools that allow users to compare genomes and gene sequences from humans, microbes, plants, viruses and organelles. Users can browse by organism, and view genome maps and protein clusters.
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The Global Proteome Machine (GPM) is a protein identification database. This data repository allows users to post and compare results. GPM's data is provided by contributors like The Informatics Factory, University of Michigan, and Pacific Northwestern National Laboratories. The GPM searchable databases are: GPMDB, pSYT, SNAP, MRM, PEPTIDE and HOT.