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HITRAN is an acronym for high-resolution transmission molecular absorption database. The HITRAN compilation of the SAO (HIgh resolution TRANmission molecular absorption database) is used for predicting and simulating transmission and emission of light in atmospheres. It is the world-standard database in molecular spectroscopy. The journal article describing it is the most cited reference in the geosciences. There are presently about 5000 HITRAN users world-wide. Its associated database HITEMP (high-temperature spectroscopic absorption parameters) is accessible by the HITRAN website.
Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) was launched into sun-synchronous polar orbit on December 18, 1999, aboard TERRA, a NASA satellite orbiting 705 km above the Earth. MOPITT monitors changes in pollution patterns and the effects on Earth’s troposphere. MOPITT uses near-infrared radiation at 2.3 µm and thermal-infrared radiation at 4.7 µm to calculate atmospheric profiles of CO.
The THEMIS mission is a five-satellite Explorer mission whose primary objective is to understand the onset and macroscale evolution of magnetospheric substorms. The five small satellites were launched together on a Delta II rocket and they carry identical sets of instruments including an electric field instrument (EFI), a flux gate magnetometer (FGM), a search coil magnetometer (SCM), a electro-static analyzer, and solid state telescopes (SST). The mission consists of several phases. In the first phase, the spacecraft will all orbit as a tight cluster in the same orbital plane with apogee at 15.4 Earth radii (RE). In the second phase, also called the Dawn Phase, the satellites will be placed in their orbits and during this time their apogees will be on the dawn side of the magnetosphere. During the third phase (also known as the Tail Science Phase) the apogees will be in the magnetotail. The fourth phase is called the Dusk Phase or Radiation Belt Science Phase, with all apogees on the dusk side. In the fifth and final phase, the apogees will shift to the sunward side (Dayside Science Phase). The satellite data will be combined with observations of the aurora from a network of 20 ground observatories across the North American continent. The THEMIS-B (THEMIS-P1) and THEMIS-C (THEMIS-P2) were repurposed to study the lunar environment in 2009. The spacecraft were renamed ARTEMIS (Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence and Electrodynamics of the Moon’s Interaction with the Sun), with the P1 and P2 designations maintained.